One can see several reasons why the spirit of ijtihad was lost and the door was closed. The following are considered some of these reasons: Political oppression, inner struggles, the misuse of the institution of ijtihad, an extreme trust in the present legal system, the denial of reform, the blindness caused by the dominant monotonous present system of the time.
Islam achieved a Renaissance in its third and fourth centuries and, to a certain extent, it became a paradigm for the European Renaissance. With all sincerity, we support a Renaissance that would consist of the rediscovery of lost human values and the rapprochement of humanity with universal human morals. Again, we support a Renaissance that allows the questioning of dictatorship and the end of dictators, and working towards a democratic society.
If a state, within the framework mentioned above, gives the opportunity to its citizens to practice their religion and supports them in their thinking, learning, and practice; this system is not considered to be against the teaching of the Qur’an. In the presence of such a state there is no need to seek an alternative state.
On the issue of Islam and democracy, one should remember that the former is a divine and heavenly religion, while the latter is a form of government developed by humans. The main purposes of religion are faith (iman), servanthood to God (ubudiyyah), knowledge of God (ma’rifah), and beautiful actions (ihsan).
In my opinion, people have either gone too far or not far enough with regards to understanding the relationship between Islam and politics. Some have said that the religion of Islam has no relationship with politics; others have perceived the religion as politics itself, ignoring the varied and rich aspects of religion.
One should seek Islam through its own sources and in its own true representatives throughout history; not through the actions of a tiny minority that misrepresent it. The truth is that there is no harshness or bigotry in Islam. It is a religion made up entirely of forgiveness and tolerance.